The Two Cultures is the title of the first part of an influential 1959 Rede Lecture by British scientist and novelist C. P. Snow.
Its thesis was that "the intellectual life of the whole of western
society" was split into the titular two cultures — namely the sciences and the humanities — and that this was a major hindrance to solving the world's problems.
Snow's position can be summed up by an often-repeated part of the essay:
A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by
the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated
and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity
at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and
have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare’s?